English language is a language of exceptions. Therefore, there are various exceptions and it becomes difficult for many people to pronounce or write English words correctly. The same letter has different sound at different place or in different words. For example:
Letter ‘c’ has ‘s’ sound in certain but ‘k’ sound in cup.
‘ei’ is followed by ‘c’ otherwise we use ‘ie’
thief, believe, achieve , die, friend
We have ‘ie’ together as they do not have ‘c’ before.
* If the sound is /ee/(ई), we use ‘ei’ after ‘c’
e.g. receive ,deceive, ceiling, receipt
Exceptions: ancient, efficient, Science. Here we have ‘ie’ after ‘c’ as sound for ‘ie’ is not ‘ee’(ई).
2. Letter ‘c’ always softens to /s/ sound when followed by ‘e’ ‘i’ or ‘y’ otherwise ‘c’ is pronounced as /k/
e.g. Cake, cover, call, case, curtain etc have /k/ sound for ‘c’ Ceiling, certain, civil, city etc have /s/ sound for ‘c’
3. Letter ‘g’ may soften to /j/ only when followed by ‘e’ ‘i’ or ‘y’
(ge, gi or gy= /j/)
e.g. general, gesture, gel, gym, age, germ, giant, gem *Sound for ‘g’ is /j/
In other cases sound for ‘g’ remains /g/
(ga, gu or go = /g/)
e.g. Grapes, goal, gap, govern, good, guess etc
*sound for ‘g’ is /g/
4. If you add an ‘e’ at the end of the word, the vowel before says its name.
Pin+ e = Pine (Hear i sound)
Win + e = Wine (Hear i sound)
At + e = Ate (Hear a sound)
Hop + e = Hope (Hear o sound)
5. If the word has consonant before ‘y’, we change y into ‘ies’
Watch this video to have better understanding for spelling mistakes?
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- House vs Home
- Mistakes versus Errors
- 8 ways to pronounce the letter A
- Syllabification and rules with examples